Experimental research

Expertise and efficiency

Fire behaviour


Product and equipment designers must incorporate the risks of fire or explosion in the development phase.
Safety managers need to know the fire behaviour of certain appliances during operation.
We can provide a suitable response to your business and your specific issues:
  • By carrying out fire behaviour tests
  • By carrying out tests according to your test protocol
  • By developing an evaluation methodology, developed by CNPP or in conjunction with the applicant

SANDWICH PANELS
Reaction to fire tests for European ranking are carried out on samples of limited size... They do not allow the full assessment of the fire behaviour of a sandwich panel mounted on a building and subjected to a real fire.
We have therefore developed a half-scale test procedure for evaluating the fire behaviour:
  • of the panel
  • of its joints in a realistic situation, and
  • of the panel fastening systems and siding fall arresters.
 
The procedure is the subject of technical document T14A.
According to the observations and measurements made during the test, the sandwich panel can be classified Pa1 or Pa2 according to the requirements of technical document T14A.
Essai panneau sandwich
 
STEEL TRAY INSULATING COVER
Technical document D14 defines the characteristics needed for steel roofs with insulation and sealing so that their contribution to the development of a fire inside a building remains very limited.
When the Co2 ranking of the roof cannot be automatically obtained, for example, because of a heat value higher than the required value in the D14 document, the latter allows for a full-scale ranking test.
If at the end of the test, the roof satisfies the test criteria of D14, Co2 ranking can be obtained.
Outside view of the roof
Vue du brûleur sous toiture
                            
Fire safety often leads managers to seek to determine the power released by the fire.
We have a calorimetry hood that can be used to characterize the combustion of products or equipment. The tests can be performed in free combustion (simulation of the outbreak of fire) and in forced combustion (simulation of combustion of the item in the fire phase).
The power of the fire is determined from the quantity of oxygen consumed (Thornton method) or from the mass loss, continuously measured.
Additional measurements can be made:
  • Measurement of the thermal radiation at a given distance
  • Characterization of fume composition: CO, CO2, NOx, HCl, HBr, HF, VOCs, PAHs, formaldehyde, acrolein, PCB, dioxins, furans
  • Measurement of smoke opacity
The issues involved in water-based fire extinguisher systems: the composition of the extinguishing water and the composition of the fumes in the extinguishing phase can also be experimentally studied by CNPP.
For many years, CNPP has been taking part in the development and performance of tests on the risks involved in storing raw materials or finished products.
Our test facilities allow the CNPP to carry out full-scale tests or at the pallet level.
The main tests are as follows:
  • The risks involved in the storage of tires and evaluation of the fire-extinguishing systems,
  • Fire behaviour of a store of building products,
  • Fire behaviour of finished products (bottles, cans, etc.) study of non-combustibility for the exclusion from section 1510 of Facilities Classified for Environmental Protection (ICPE)
Tanks of gas and flammable liquids are liable to explode when subjected to fire.
The risk of explosion is often prevented through the installation of safety devices to discharge overpressure.
We carry out fire behaviour tests on the safety devices in question, by subjecting the tanks of gas or flammable liquids to standardized fires. The internal pressure and tank temperature are measured over time.
Risk control also requires an assessment of the consequences of a fire on a tank in case of malfunction of the safety devices.
The effects of the explosion are determined by installing dynamic pressure sensors at various distances and video recordings with a high-speed camera.

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